A fundamental requirement for the validity of Imaan is belief in Qadr or predestination.
The doctrine of Qadr is among the mysteries of Allah. It is not fully comprehensible to the human mind not can it be fully explained. Qadr is related to the Eternity of Allah. Allah is the ONE and only uncreated, infinite Being. Hence, the conception of Qadr falls within the scope of Divine Eternity. Man and all creation are created, hence finite beings. Thus man's intellect and understanding are also finite and limited. A finite entity will necessarily be subjected to limitations. Therefore, the finite and limited mind of man cannot encompass or comprehend fully and in entirety a concept which in infinite and limitless.
It is because of the inability of the finite mind and intellect to grasp in totality the infinite, unlimited, uncreated and eternal realities and truths that Rasoolullah (SAW) forbade probing into the concept of Qadr. The following hadith will indicate the Shar'i attitude in relation to Qadr.
Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates;Once while we were disputing about the concept of Qadr, Rasoolullah (SAW) came upon us. (Seeing us debating the subject of Qadr) he became so much filled with anger that his face became red. His face reddened (with anger) to such an extent that it seemed that the seeds of a pomegranate were squeezed out on his cheeks. He exclaimed: â€کWhat! Have you been commanded with this?' , or he said: What! Have I been sent to you for this? Verily, those before you were destroyed when they disputed in this question. I give you an oath! I give you an oath! (i.e. I command you) Do not dispute in it'.
It is, therefore, not permissible to dispute about the mas`alah of Qadr which is a fundamental article of Imaan . The Mu'min should accept that Rasoolullah (SAW) formed the Ummah of the fundamental importance of Qadr for the validity of Imaan . Hence, irrespective of our failure to comprehend it, we believe in it. Qadr is related to the Eternal Attributes (sifaat) of Allah. It is, therefore, only logical that it will not be fully comprehensible to our minds.
The absolute essentiality of belief in Qadr for the validity of Imaan will be borne out by the following statement of the Sahaabi, Hadhrat Ubayy Bin Ka'b (RA):
[Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah]
Many Sahaabah have narrated similar statements of Rasoolullah (SAW).
THE MEANING OF IMAAN BIL-QADR
Belief in Qadr means to believe that whatever happened, happens or will happen (be it good or bad) is with the Command, Will and Knowledge of Allah . The entire scheme and operation of entire creation is in accordance with His, Will and Command.
The greater the Yaqeen in this belief in the nature stated above, the greater will be man's submission to Allah and the greater will be his reliance on Allah while at the same time his hope and reliance on material agencies will be negated, i.e. he will not cherish any hope on anyone or anything besides Allah .
This, then, is the meaning of belief in Qadr. This is the belief of the Ahl-Sunnah Wal Jammat “ the belief of Rasoolullah (SAW). Denial of this belief in Qadr is kufr.
In obedience to the order of Rasoolullah (SAW) we shall end the discussion on this belief. What has been stated above is sufficient for the understanding of the Mu'min and absolutely necessary for the validity of Imaan .